Queen Cleopatra is one of the world’s most famous female rulers whose life story inspired historians, ordinary people and storytellers, including William Shakespeare who wrote the play Antony and Cleopatra.
Cleopatra was born to a royal family around 69 B.C to King Ptolemy XII. The throne was left to her and her brother after her father died when she was 18-years-old. Their relationship became strained after they assumed power, resulting in Cleopatra assembling an army to overthrow her brother. She would come to meet Julius Caesar of Rome when Caesar followed his rival Pompey into Egypt when he was seeking refuge from Rome’s civil war. Caesar helped Cleopatra defeat her brother in the Battle of the Nile, and it is believed that together they had a son named Caesarion.
Following Caesar’s assassination, Cleopatra met Marc Antony, with whom she had 3 children. After a tumultuous love affair, Antony died after committing suicide, being falsely led to believe that Cleopatra had died in the battle at Actium. She in fact died much later after being bitten by an Egyptian cobra in 30 B.C. The two were buried together, as they had wished, and Egypt became a province of the Roman Empire
The color we know as orange was referred to in Old English as “geoluhread,” which means yellow-red. The word “orange” was adopted after the eponymous fruit was introduced to English via the Spanish word naranja, which came from the Sanskrit word nāraṅga. Orange conveys energy, enthusiasm, and balance. It has less intensity or violence than red, and is calmed by the happiness of yellow. The color orange often relates to autumn, when the leaves turn shades of orange and brown. Orange is also tied to Hinduism and Buddhism. In Hinduism, the color orange represents fire, a metaphor for the inner transformation that is experienced by swamis donning orange robes.
Taxis have become legendary in American culture. You’ve seen Jimmy Fallon learn how to drive one on the big screen, Miley Cyrus sang about her experience inside one, and books often describe the hero or heroine’s journey in this yellow vehicle.
But haven’t you ever wondered how taxis began? You have an idea that it might have something to do with the invention of the automobile. Or did taxis exist before the car? Here, we’ll tell you everything about the taxis cab, from its humble beginnings to its visionary future.
Taxis of the Past
You might feel surprised to discover that taxis date back to 17th century Europe. Individuals during this time period hired horsedrawn hackney carriages to travel across London, Paris, and other major European cities. Usually merchants, innkeepers, and elitists employed this coach service.
By the mid-1800s, however, carriage services saw a new, faster model called the hansom cab. Joseph Hansom designed a smaller, lighter carriage that only required one horse to pull it. In fact, these coaches could easily traverse city streets and travel around traffic. As a result, this transportation method became increasingly popular.
Taxis Get a Motor
In the 19th century, Karl Benz invented the automobile. And as engineers developed new technology, the car improved significantly. By the end of the 1897, the first motorized taxis came about. Walter C. Bersey created a line of taxicabs in London. And during this same time, Samuel’s Electric Carriage and Wagon Company of New York employed a similar vehicle.
Two years later, Friedrich Wilhelm Gustav Bruhn, a German inventor, crafted the Daimler Victoria, the first gasoline-powered and taximeter-equipped cab. And by 1907, New Yorkers could find this same vehicle on the city streets. To make cabs more visible to patrons, one taxi driver (Henry N. Allen) painted his cabs yellow.